Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for about 58 per cent of India’s population. Gross Value Added by agriculture, forestry and fishing is estimated at Rs 18.55 lakh crore (US$ 265.51 billion) in FY19(PE). Growth in Gross Value Added (GVA) by agriculture and allied sectors stood at 2.1 per cent in H1 2019-20.
The Indian food industry is poised for huge growth, increasing its contribution to world food trade every year due to its immense potential for value addition, particularly within the food processing industry. The Indian food and grocery market are the world’s sixth largest, with retail contributing 70 per cent of the sales. The Indian food processing industry accounts for 32 per cent of the country’s total food market, one of the largest industries in India and is ranked fifth in terms of production, consumption, export and expected growth. It contributes around 8.80 and 8.39 per cent of Gross Value Added (GVA) in Manufacturing and Agriculture respectively, 13 per cent of India’s exports and six per cent of total industrial investment.
India became the fourth largest auto market in 2018 with sales increasing 8.3 per cent year-on-year to 3.99 million units. It was the seventh largest manufacturer of commercial vehicles in 2018.
The Two Wheelers segment dominates the market in terms of volume owing to a growing middle class and a young population. Moreover, the growing interest of the companies in exploring the rural markets further aided the growth of the sector.
India is also a prominent auto exporter and has strong export growth expectations for the near future. Automobile exports grew 14.50 per cent during FY19. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.05 per cent during 2016-2026. In addition, several initiatives by the Government of India and the major automobile players in the Indian market are expected to make India a leader in the two-wheeler and four-wheeler market in the world by 2020.
Overall domestic automobiles sales increased at 6.71 per cent CAGR between FY13-19 with 26.27 million vehicles getting sold in FY19. Domestic automobile production increased at 6.96 per cent CAGR between FY13-19 with 30.92 million vehicles manufactured in the country in FY19.In FY19, year-on-year growth in domestic sales among all the categories was recorded in commercial vehicles at 17.55 per cent followed by 10.27 per cent year-on-year growth in the sales of three-wheelers.
Automobile exports grew 14.50 per cent year-on-year during FY19, while during April-December 2019, overall export increased by 3.9 per cent.Premium motorbike sales in India recorded seven-fold jump in domestic sales reaching 13,982 units during April-September 2019. The sale of luxury cars stood between 15,000 to 17,000 in first six months of 2019.Sales of electric two-wheelers are estimated to have crossed 55,000 vehicles in 2017-18.
India is the largest provider of generic drugs globally. Indian pharmaceutical sector industry supplies over 50 per cent of global demand for various vaccines, 40 per cent of generic demand in the US and 25 per cent of all medicine in UK.India enjoys an important position in the global pharmaceuticals sector. The country also has a large pool of scientists and engineers who have the potential to steer the industry ahead to an even higher level. Presently over 80 per cent of the antiretroviral drugs used globally to combat AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) are supplied by Indian pharmaceutical firms.
Indian pharmaceutical sector is expected to grow to US$ 100 billion and medical device market expected to grow US$ 25 billion by 2025. Pharmaceuticals exports from India stood at US$ 19.14 billion in FY19 and US$ 13.69 billion in FY20 (up to January 2020). Pharmaceutical exports include bulk drugs, intermediates, drug formulations, biologicals, Ayush & herbal products and surgicals.Indian companies received 304 Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) approvals from the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) in 2017 and received a total of 415 product approvals in 2018 and 73 tentative approvals. The country accounts for around 30 per cent (by volume) and about 10 per cent (value) in the US$ 70-80 billion US generics market.India's biotechnology industry comprising biopharmaceuticals, bio-services, bio-agriculture, bio-industry and bioinformatics is expected grow at an average growth rate of around 30 per cent a year and reach US$ 100 billion by 2025.
India’s domestic pharmaceutical market turnover reached Rs 1.4 lakh crore (US$ 20.03 billion) in 2019, growing 9.8 per cent year-on-year (in Rs) from Rs 129,015 crore (US$ 18.12 billion) in 2018.
The e-commerce has transformed the way business is done in India. The Indian e-commerce market is expected to grow to US$ 200 billion by 2026 from US$ 38.5 billion as of 2017. Much growth of the industry has been triggered by increasing internet and smartphone penetration. The ongoing digital transformation in the country is expected to increase India’s total internet user base to 829 million by 2021 from 636.73 million in FY19. India’s internet economy is expected to double from US$ 125 billion as of April 2017 to US$ 250 billion by 2020, majorly backed by ecommerce. India’s E-commerce revenue is expected to jump from US$ 39 billion in 2017 to US$ 120 billion in 2020, growing at an annual rate of 51 per cent, the highest in the world.
Propelled by rising smartphone penetration, the launch of 4G networks and increasing consumer wealth, the Indian e-commerce market is expected to grow to US$ 200 billion by 2026 from US$ 38.5 billion in 2017. Online retail sales in India are expected to grow by 31 per cent to touch US$ 32.70 billion in 2018, led by Flipkart, Amazon India and Paytm Mall. Smartphone shipments in India increased eight per cent year-on-year to reach 152.5 million units in 2019, thereby making it the fastest growing market of the top 20 smartphone markets in the world. During 2018, electronics is currently the biggest contributor to online retail sales in India with a share of 48 per cent, followed closely by apparel at 29 per cent.
The Indian Railways is among the world’s largest rail networks. The Indian Railways route length network is spread over 1,23,236 km, with 13,452 passenger trains and 9,141 freight trains from 7,349 stations plying 23 million travellers and 3 million tonnes (MT) of freight daily. India's railway network is recognised as one of the largest railway systems in the world under single management.
The railway network is also ideal for long-distance travel and movement of bulk commodities, apart from being an energy efficient and economic mode of conveyance and transport. Indian Railways was the preferred carrier of automobiles in the country with loading from automobiles traffic growing 16 per cent in 2017-18.
The Government of India has focused on investing on railway infrastructure by making investor-friendly policies. It has moved quickly to enable Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in railways to improve infrastructure for freight and high-speed trains. At present, several domestic and foreign companies are also looking to invest in Indian rail projects.
Indian Railways’ revenues increased at a CAGR of 6.20 per cent during FY08-FY19 to US$ 27.13 billion in FY19. Earnings from the passenger business grew at a CAGR of 6.43 per cent during FY07-FY19 to reach US$ 7.55 billion in 2018-19P. Freight revenue rose at a CAGR of 4.30 per cent during FY08-FY19 to reach US$ 18.20 billion in 2018-19.
The gross revenue stood at Rs 145,333.61 crore (US$ 20.79 billion) in FY20P (up to January 2020). Passenger earnings of Indian Railways is estimated at Rs 44,279.72 crore (US$ 6.34 billion) in FY20 (up to January 2020). Freight earnings in FY20 (up to January 2020) stood at Rs 92,960.65 crore (US$ 13.30 billion).
India was among the top 20 exporters of railways globally, as of 2017. India’s exports of railways have grown at a CAGR of 31.51 per cent during 2010-2018 to US$ 507.90 million. Exports of railways in 2019E stood at US$ 635 million.