Sayyana Kontham

Country Expert Country Expert

Poland Statistics

In 2018 Poland was the number 21 economy in the world in terms of GDP (current US$) and has the eight-largest economy in the EU and has long had a reputation as a business-friendly country with largely sound macroeconomic policies. Poland is classified as a high-income economy by the World Bank.
The largest component of its economy is the service sector (62.3%), followed by industry (34.2%) and agriculture (3.5%). Poland shipped US$224.6 billion worth of goods around the globe in 2017, while exports increased to US$221.4 billion. The country’s top export goods include machinery, electronic equipment, vehicles, furniture, and plastics.
$ 1 Crores
GDP in USD trillion
1 Crores
Population (2019)
Area ( km. sq. )
Import Of Poland

In 2018 Poland imported a total of $278B, making it the number 18th trade destination in the world.
Main Import Countries

Export Of Poland

In 2018 Poland exported a total of $259B, making it the number 23rd exporter in the world.
Main Export Countries

Major Sectors

Agriculture Energy Agriculture Manufacturing Tourism Aerospace Electronics

Agriculture is one of Poland’s biggest industries, which while accounting for 3.8% of the country’s GDP, is responsible for 12.7% of Poland’s labour force. The industry is mostly private, as private farms make up 90% of the total farmlands. Majority of these private farmers (57%) own less than 5 hectares of farmland, and only 7% of private farms exceed 15 hectares in size in 1987. In contrast, most of the state-owned farmland was over 1,000 hectares in size. Nonetheless, most of the gross agricultural produce in Poland is attributed to private farms. 60% of the country’s land area (18.727 million hectares) is used for agricultural purposes, where 14.413 million hectares is in crop cultivation and 4.048 million hectares is used for pasture and meadows. Grains are the most important crops in the country, especially wheat, oats, barley, and rye. Poland has the world’s second-largest potato production and is the sixth-largest producer of milk and pigs in the world. Poland’s large population acts as an essential market for the country’s agricultural produce. Of the sugar produced in Poland, 83% is consumed domestically, as well as 90% of the poultry, 74% of the bacon, and 84% of the tinned meat.

Another major industry in Poland is the country’s energy industry. The country is a significant player in the global coal production and is the world’s 9th largest producer of hard coal. Poland produces about 57 megatons of brown coal and 78 megatons of hard coal. Most of the locally sourced coal in Poland is consumed domestically, as the country is Europe’s second-largest consumer of coal, with its coal consumption in Europe being only surpassed by neighbouring Germany. Poland’s coal is used in the generation of electricity, with 143 TWh of Poland’s electricity being sourced from coal-based power stations. The Lodz Region in Poland is home to the Belchatow Power Station; Europe’s biggest brown coal power station, which is responsible for the generation of 20% of energy consumed in Poland. Renewable energy is also an essential aspect of the energy industry, with renewable energy sources such as solar power, wind power, and hydroelectric power all significant recording growth in recent years.

Agricultural production in the country is limited by the poor soils, with only 10% of the land area in Spain being considered excellent for cultivation. The country’s terrain also hinders the implementation of new technologies in the industry. Nonetheless, Spain still has Europe’s second-largest land devoted to agricultural purposes, with the country’s agricultural land only exceeded in size by France. The majority of the agricultural land is used as pastureland. Land under irrigation-based agriculture in Spain accounts for only 17% of the country’s cultivated land, but produce as much as 50% of Spain’s agricultural exports. Horticultural products are Spain’s most important agricultural export commodities, and these include vegetables and citrus fruits. The country produces the highest amount of olives in the world and is Western Europe’s top producer of citrus fruits. Despite having the largest area of vineyards in the world, and being the world’s number-one wine exporter, the wine produced in Spain does not stand out and is often bottled in neighboring France and Italy from where it is sold. Essential livestock products in Spain include pork, beef, milk, and poultry.

The manufacturing is also a significant industry in Poland. Automotive production accounts for 11% of Poland’s total industrial output and about 4% of the country’s GDP. The country is the world’s 23rd largest vehicle manufacturer and is Eastern and Central Europe’s largest manufacturer of light vehicles. The automotive sector in Poland has grown in leaps and bounds since the collapse of the Soviet Union but experienced its most significant growth after the country became part of the European Union in 2004. Annual exports from the automotive sector are valued at over 15.7 billion Euros, translating to about 16% of the country’s total exports. The country’s manufacturing industry also features shipbuilding, the manufacture of petrochemicals and fertilizers, and the production of electronics and electrical machinery.

Tourism is another important industry in Poland. The country has always been a tourist magnet since the collapse of the Eastern Bloc in the late 1980s but experienced a surge in tourist numbers after gaining membership to the European Union in 2004. Poland was regarded as the world’s 16th most popular tourist destination in 2016 after an estimated 17.5 million tourists visited the country. Poland is known for its natural sceneries and historic sites. Natural tourist attractions in the country include the Tatra Mountains and the Baltic Sea. Cities such as Warsaw, Gdansk, Torun, and Krakow have numerous sites of great historical significance. The numerous cultural events held in the country also attract thousands of tourists.

With a century-long tradition of aviation and over 80 years of aerospace industry, Poland stands out as one of the optimum locations for development and fulfilment of aeronautic projects in Europe. The industry covers aircraft and aircraft parts production, maintenance and overhaul, scientific research and pilot training. Thus, it is not coincidence that a number of multinational aerospace corporations are present in Poland and over 90 percent of their production is exported. The country has also a strong foundation of small and medium-size enterprises comprised by a wide chain of suppliers for aerospace giants such as Boeing, Airbus and Embraer.

The country's electronics industry has emerged in recent years as one of the most significant on the continent. Poland is home to many leading producers of electronics and home appliances, including producing 50 percent of Europe's highly popular LCD-screen TVs. Foreign investment has taken place in every area of the electronics market from computers to telecoms, components and also audio video. Dependable employees, brilliant universities and a strategic location make Poland the most competitive choice in the region.

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